Distillation of a Liquid Mixture

Report

The lab report for this experiment consists of a form that you will input data into. The form is available on the Chem 201 Laboratory Moodle Course page. You and your lab partner will submit your own report. All work including the tables and graph should be your own.

All lab reports are due the week of September 27-October 1, 2021 by noon on your respective lab day.


Additional instructions for completing the report form:

1. The unknown flavoring consisted of two components. For each component:

  • Provide its systematic (IUPAC) name and boiling point (bp). [NOTE]If you found that a compound boiled over a range of temperatures, enter this range.
  • Provide a published boiling point for comparison and cite the reference you used: CRC Handbook, Sigma-Aldrich catalog, PubChem, or a source provided by ChemSpider. Do not use/cite other sources such as Wikipedia or a class web page or an MSDS.
  • List the IR bands that provided information about the structure of your flavoring. In most cases, these will be bands that are fairly strong and associated with stretching vibrations of polar bonds in whatever functional group(s) your molecule contains.
    • Spartan’18 Predicted Abs. Maxima & Experimental Abs. Maxima – Report to the nearest cm-1, i.e., 1748.31 should be reported as 1748.
    • Relative intensity – This is a qualitative assessment. Strong, medium, and weak bands should be labeled s, m, and w, respectively. If a band goes completely off-scale, label it very strong (vs). If it is barely visible, label it very weak (vw).
    • Shape – Optional. Most bands look normal, but if your band is exceptionally sharp, or broad, or W-shaped (the band appears to consist of two closely separated bands), enter this information here: sharpbroadW.
    • Assignment – Enter one assignment for each abs. maximum. If a vibration involves bond stretching, draw the atoms and the bond type, e.g., C-O or C=O or O-H and add st. If a vibration involves a bending motion, draw the 3-atom group, e.g., CH2 or COC, and add bd.
    • Structural formula (#DU) – Draw the molecule’s structural formula and enter the number of degrees of unsaturation in the entire molecule.

2. Attach tables and the graph to the form. They can be placed at the end of the form:

Attach two data tables listing the results you collected from the virtual experiments. Each table should consist of two columns: Distillate Volume (mL) and Distillate Temperature (oC). Each table should have a table caption with a descriptive name.

Attach one graph of Temperature (vertical axis) vs. Volume (horizontal axis). Label your axes. Plot the data from both tables on this graph. Use different symbols and/or colors to represent the data from each experiment and include a legend that explains your symbols/colors (this can stand next to the graph or be included in the caption). The graph should have a caption with a descriptive name.

3. Attach your notebook pages for Experiment 1 (include all left and right-hand pages as well as the IR activity answers and modeling results with your notebook scans).

Converting notebook pages into a PDF file can be accomplished in several different ways. The people at the CUS help desk will be glad to assist you (but don’t wait until the last minute – they are not miracle workers).

  • Photocopiers on campus will scan any document (including pages from your notebook) and convert it into a PDF file. Use black-and-white, never color.
  • You can use your phone to take pictures of your notebook pages. Email yourself the images and convert them into a PDF file. Make sure the photos are legible. If we can’t read it, it doesn’t exist for us (and there will be a grade to match).
  • Adobe Acrobat (and probably several other programs in the ETC) will allow you to merge PDF pages and files from different sources.
  • If you use Adobe Acrobat, a good ‘final’ step is to use Save As Other… Reduced Size PDF… Make compatible with Acrobat 10.0 and later. This will often make very large files, e.g., those generated by cameras and photocopiers much smaller.